Flat foot also known as pes planus, is a common condition in children that affect the arch of the foot. It occurs when the arch of the foot collapse causing the entire sole of the foot to touch the ground. This can lead to pain and discomfort, as well as difficulty with walking and running. In severe cases, Pediatric flat foot surgery may be necessary to correct the conditions.

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

The first step in treating a pediatric flat foot is to have a proper diagnosis from a pediatric orthopedic surgeon. This will involve a physical examination as well as imaging tests such as an x-ray or MRI to determine the extent of the conditions.

The type of treatment recommended will depend on the severity of the flat foot. For mild cases, non-surgical options such as orthotic inserts or physical therapy may be recommended. However, in more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct the conditions and alleviate pain and discomfort.

Types of Pediatric Flat Foot Surgery

There are several different types of pediatric flat foot surgery that may be recommended, depending on the specific case. Some of the most common types of surgery include:

  • Calcaneal osteotomy: This procedure involves cutting and repositioning the heel bone to correct the position of the arch.
  • Posterior tibial tendon transfer: This procedure involves moving the posterior tibial tendon to a new location to help support the arch.
  • Fusion of the ankle or hindfoot: This procedure involves fusing together two or more bones in the foot to help stabilize the arch.

Recovery and Rehabilitation

Recovery and Rehabilitation after flat foot surgery will depend on the specific procedure that was performed. In general, it will involve a period of rest and immobilization to allow the foot to heal properly. Physical therapy will also be recommended to help strengthen the foot and improve mobility.

It is important to follow the recovery and rehabilitation plan provided by the surgeon to ensure proper healing and the best possible outcome. This may include regular follow-up appointments with the surgeon to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments to the recovery plan.

Nail Fungus Treatment in Canada: Understanding the options

Nail fungus also known as onychomycosis is a common condition that affects the nail of the feet and hands. It is caused by a fungal infection that can lead to thickening, discoloration, and separation of the nails from the nail bed. The fungus thrives in warm moist environments such as those found in shoes and socks.  It also causes pain and discomfort, as well as difficulty with walking and running.

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

The first step in treating nail fungus is to have a proper diagnosis from a dermatologist or podiatrist. This will involve a physical examination of the nails, as well as a fungal culture to confirm the presence of the infection.

Treatment options for nail fungus include:

  • Topical antifungal medications: These medicians come in the form of creams, lotions, and gels and they work by killing the fungus that is causing the infection. These are applied directly to the affected nails and are typically recommended for mild cases of nail fungus. Topical antifungal medications are available over the counter but some require a prescription.
  • Oral antifungal medications: These are taken by mouth and are used to treat more severe or widespread cases of nail fungus. Oral antifungal medicians are available by prescription only and may have potential side effects, such as liver damage. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting an oral antifungal treatment.
  • Laser therapy: This is a newer treatment option that uses laser light to destroy the fungus that is causing the infection. The laser light is directed at the infected nails and the heat from the laser kills the fungus. This treatment is usually done in a doctor’s office and may require several sessions to achieve the desired result.

In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several home remedies that can be used to treat nail fungus. These include using tea tree oil, apple cider vinegar, and baking soda. These remedies can be used in combination with medical treatment or on their own.


To prevent nail fungus from recurring, It is important to maintain good foot hygiene. This includes keeping the feet clean and dry, wearing clean socks and shoes, and avoiding walking barefoot in public places. It is also important to avoid sharing personal items such as nail clippers and nail files, with others.


In conclusion, nail fungus is a common condition that affects both toenails and fingernails in Canada. There are several options for nail fungus treatment in Canada including topical antifungal medication, oral antifungal medication, laser therapy, and home remedies. If you suspect that you have nail fungus, it is important to consult with healthcare professionals for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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